Wednesday, September 6, 2017

competitive-phrases preposition


What is a preposition?
Definition A preposition may be a word, which links nouns, pronouns, or phrases to different words inside a sentence. Prepositions are sometimes short words, and that they are commonly placed directly ahead of nouns. Sometimes, you’ll notice prepositions ahead of verbal noun verbs. There are two vital rules to recollect when exploitation prepositions. because they are vague, learning about prepositions and exploitation them properly in sentences takes observe. because of translation is commonly not possible once addressing propositions, even the foremost advanced English students have the problem initially.

How to use of Prepositions The first rule is that certain propositions should be wont to create the relationships between words in an exceedingly sentence clear. Most prepositions are interchangeable however solely to a definite extent.
Definitions of preposition

preposition a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in “the man on the platform, Examples of prepositions “she arrived after dinner,” “what did you do it for?”.
Definition in Hindi :-Preposition वाक्य  में ऐसा शब्द है जो सामान्यतया  Noun/ Pronoun के पूर्व प्रयुक्त होता है  एवं Noun/Pronoun  का सम्बन्ध वाक्य  में प्रयुक्त  अन्य शब्दों  से व्यक्त करता है
इस परिभाषा  से  Preposition के संबंध में  निम्नलिखित  दो बाते स्पष्ट होती है
१ Preposition का प्रयोग  Noun या Pronoun   से पूर्व होता है
२  यह Noun या Pronoun का संबंध  वाक्य में अन्य वस्तु से व्यक्त  करता है।
 Proposition - Pre  (पाहिले)   Position (स्थित) अर्थात  जो Noun या Pronoun के पाहिले प्रयुक्त  होता  है।

It’s different from English, too, because it puts the verb at the end of the sentence and uses postpositions instead of prepositions you can learn, how to use a preposition and a prepositional phrase.

What is a Proposition?

The word Preposition (as is indicated by Prefix ‘Pre’) is a word or a group of a word that is placed before a noun or pronoun to show direction, method, place, source, etc. It shows the noun or pronoun to have a kind of relation regarding something else with the help of a Preposition.

For example

  (i) The Preposition may join one noun to another.
       Sheena was in the kitchen.                                             (‘Sheena’ and ‘kitchen’)
(ii) It may join noun to a verb.
     She slipped off the stairs. ‘ (slipped’ and ‘stairs’
(iii) It may join noun to an adjective.
    We are proud of our country.                                 (‘proud ’ and ‘country’)

1.At, in, on, of, off, through, below, with etc are prepositions.

2. The noun or pronoun used with the preposition is in the accusative case.

For example

(i) The book is on the table. ,
(ii) I did not talk to him.

Here ‘table’ and I have used him in the accusative case because they are words the objects of the preposition.

3. A Preposition sometimes may have over one object.

For example
( i ) I gave money to Ritu and her brother.
(ii) Distribute the mangoes among the boys and the girls.

4. A clause can also be the object of a preposition.

For example
(i) I was pleased with what she did for me.
( ii ) Pay attention to what your parents say.

5. Adverbs of time and place can also be the object of a preposition.

For example
(i) I don’t like to go from here.
(ii) She had returned by then.

6. When verbs are placed after prepositions (other than ‘to’) they should be in the gerund form except when they are used in the infinitive form.

For example

(i) I am confident of winning her love.
(ii) She does not believe in wasting time.

(iii) She insisted on going to Pune.
appropriate prepositions for competitive-phases preposition

Note:-हम ने प्रतियोगी की सुबिधाओ को  देखते हुए कुछ महत्व पूर्ण  Preposition  को  उन के use के हिसाब से  ऊपर Image में दाल दिया है। जोकि बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है।

Prepositions before Particular Words

(A) Travel, movement
(a) From, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, off, out, out of.

For example

We travel daily from Meerut to Delhi.

(b)) Arrive at/in, get to (reach).
For example . .

( i ) They arrived in India in March.
(ii) I arrived at Patel Bridge.
(iii) I go to the Bus stand late.

(c) Home (Without preposition)

For example

home के  साथ सीधा  Preposition use नहीं होता है।
(i') They went home by bus. (Without Preposition)
(ii) She returned to her home late. (With Preposition)
(iii) He went to his home. (With Preposition)

(B) Above and over (a) ‘Above’, ‘over’ means. higher than
(b) But ‘over’ can also mean ‘covering on the other side of’, across, from one side to the other and in every part of the region.
Over का Use मुख्यतः ऊपर बिना छुए बाली  बस्तुओ के लिए , किसी बस्तु को ढ़कने और  क्षेत्र  बताने के लिए कर सकते है /

For example

(i) We put a sheet over his body.   (यहां over का प्रयोग ढकने के लिए हुआ है। )
(ii) There is a bridge over the river    (यहां over का प्रयोग ऊपर बिना छुए के  के लिए हुआ है। )
(iii) He has friends all over the world. (यहां over का प्रयोग क्षेत्र  के लिए हुआ है। )
(iv) Diwali is celebrated all over India. (यहां over का प्रयोग ढकने के लिए हुआ है। )

(C) Under, below beneath

Under, below और  beneath इन सभी का अर्थ होता है नीचे

(a) ‘Below’, ‘under’, mean lower than, but ‘under’ can indicate contact.

For example
नीचे दिए  गए  उदाहरण से हमें ये मालुम  (ज्ञात ) होता हे की कोई बस्तु किसी बस्तु के नीचे है
(i) She kept money under the bed.         (यहाँ पैसे बिस्तर के नीचे है। )
(ii) The old man was crushed under the car.

(b) However, ‘below’ is used when there is a space between the two surfaces.

under और below से ब्यक्ति  की  स्थित  और पद को भी ब्यक्त कर सकते है।

For example They live below us. ‘            (We live above them )
He works under me
(c) ‘Under’ can mean junior in ranks.

For example

He is under me. (I am his superior, below doesn’t have this meaning)

((1) ‘Beneath’ has the same meaning as under, but it is better to use it for abstract meanings
.(Beneath) का अर्थ है नीचे  लेकिन इसका Use ( abstract meanings) के लिए किया जाता है।
For example

. He would think it beneath him to do such a small work. (Unworthy / of him)

(D) Time and date
.(Use at, on, by, in) at dusk, at noon, at dawn, at midnight, at midday, at fourteen

(the age) at night, at six, at 7.30, in/on the morning/afternoon/evening/night (of a certain date)
For example
We left on the evening of the sixth at 5.30 pm.
We left in the evening/afternoon.

(E) On time, in time, in good time (इन का प्रयोग समय के साथ होता है। )
( a) ‘On time’ (at time arranged, neither before nor after) On time का मतलब है समय पर न समय से पाहिले और न बाद में  नीचे उदाहरण देखे
For example

      The train is running on time.
       I reached examination hall on time
(b) In time
    का मतलब  देरी से नहीं  समय से    (not late)
               He came here in time
                I reached examination hall on time

F At the beginning/at the end, in the beginning,/in the end, at first, at last

(a) At the beginning of a book,there is a forward.
(b) At the end, there may be an index
(c) In the beginning/at first’ = In the early stage. It implies that later we had machines

. For example
         In the beginning we used hand tools, later we had machines.

(d ) In the end/At last’ -eventually/after sometime.
For example
At first he opposed marriage, but in the end, he gave his consent

(e)  use of:- in, on, at, the back of

(i) What is there at the back of the table. ( behind)
(ii) There is a glossary at the back of the book.
(iii)There is a room on the back of the of the house. (back (ids part/and)
(iv) He was stabbed in the back.
(G) Use of by, before
By time/date (not later than)
Please be at home by 8:00p.m.
By the end of this year, my study will have finished.
By का use passive voice में Agent (एजेंट) से पाहिले होता है।

Rules of Proposition
A preposition is usually placed before its object but sometimes it is placed after it in the following cases
preposition का प्रयोग ज्यादातर  ऑब्जेक्ट से पहिले  किया जाता है  लेकिन कभी-कभी इसे उसके बाद निम्नलिखित मामलों में इस का स्थान बदल भी जाता है।  नीचे दिए गए उदाहरण देखे।
(A) When the object in the interrogative pronoun is understood.
For example

(i) To whom are you talking? (Incorrect)
Who are you talking to? (Correct)
Whom are you talking to? (Correct)

(ii) About what are you talking? (Incorrect)
What are you talking about? (Correct)
(iii) For what are you looking? (Incorrect)
What are you looking for? ( Correct)
(iv) For what are you waiting? (Incorrect)
What are you waiting for? (Correct)

(B) When the object of the preposition is a relative pronoun ‘that’.
For example '
This is the book for that I have been looking. (Incorrect)

(I) This is the book that I have been looking for.(correct)
 This is the picture of that she always talks. (Incorrect)
(II) This is the picture that she always talks about. ( correct)

(C)When an infinitive qualifies a noun, the preposition should be placed after the
infinitive, if required'
For example :-
(i) It is not a safe place to live.
(ii) He gave me food to eat.
(iii) I gave her money to spend.  (Correct)  

Some important preposition use

1- 'At' is used for a steady state and for 'in' dynamic position.
'At' स्थिर अवस्था के लिए  तथा 'In' गतिशील स्थिति  हेतु  प्रयोग  होता है।

(a) She is at home                   (b) The train is in motion

2-Use of 'At' small places and ' In' big places

At का प्रयोग छोटे स्थानों  हेतु   In बड़े स्थानों के लिए प्रयोग होता है।
Exam. 1- I live at Sanjay Colony in Morena
            2- The Kaknmath temple is situated at Sihoniya district Morena in M.P
3-'At' is used for point of time and 'In' is the period of time.
'At' Point of time हेतु  तथा    'In'  Period of time हेतु प्रयुक्त  होता है।
(A) The train  will arrive at 6 in the Morning.
(B)  He will meet you in the morning

4- Use of In/Into
     In का प्रयोग पूर्व में ही  जब कोई बस्तु  अंदर होती है , उस के लिए जबकि   Into  का प्रयोग  गति
  (movement)   के लिए  किया जाता है।
Example-: (a) There are three student in the class.
                    (b) He jumped into the river.

5-  Use of To / Into both displays dynamic. According to the meaning of the sentence

is done. To mean the meaning को, and into means inside.

Use of  To/Into दोनों का प्रयोग गतिशील प्रदर्शित करता है। इनका प्रयोग वाक्य के अर्थ के अनुसार
किया जाता है। To का अर्थ को ,का ,की  तथा Into का अर्थ अन्दर होता है।
Example -: (1) He went to market. (2)He jumped into the well

Use of  On/To/Onto

Use of 'on' for Time  Example
(1) He will come on Monday  (2) Ram will go on 4th June

Use of To for Place  Example
(1)  He will go to market   
(2) Ram will go to Delhi tomorrow.

On/onto : On का प्रयोग स्थिरता  एवं गतिशीलता  दोनों हेतु किया जा सकता है।
(1) Snow fell on the hills.  
(2) He is sitting on his suitcase.

Onto is used primarily for movement when a change of level is expressed.
Onto  का प्रयोग मुख्य रूप से गतिशीलता (movement) हेतु तब होता है जब level (तल ) का Change   व्यक्त होता है। Example -:
(1) People climbed onto their roofs
(2) He lifted her onto the table
Use of With/By Use of With for  Instrument. and  use of  By for  an agent
With का प्रयोग Instrument    हेतु और  By का प्रयोग Agent  (कर्ता ) हेतु किया जाता है।
Example -:
(1) The  snake was killed by him with a stick
(2) The letter was written by Suresh with a pencil.
Use of Since/For/ From Science का प्रयोग   Perfect Tense में होता है।  For का प्रयोग Perfect Tense में भी  'समय की अवधि' के लिए  होता है।Since का प्रयोग    Point of time हेतु :
1- Since का प्रयोग:6 O'clock /Last night/Last Monday/ Morning /January 2004,5 etc
Since का प्रयोग only Perfect Tense में होता है।
2-For का प्रयोग अबधि  हेतु: for two hours/for two days /for a long time / for some time
For प्रयोग  प्रत्येक Tense में   होता है। 3- From का प्रयोग  'समय से ' कार्य होने एवं स्थान के लिए भी होता है। 
Some Example -:
1- He will go to college from next Monday
2-  It has been raining since two o'clock
 3- He worked for three hours
4- This book is useful for SSC competitive Exam.  (के लिए के रूप में )
Use of During -: During का प्रयोग  हिंदी वाक्यों  में जब दौरान शब्द  आये  तब During का प्रयोग करे  Example -: It rained all Sunday , but stopped during the night

Use of Beside / Besides:-  Beside का अर्थ/ साथ में / बगल में /के रूप में  होता है  जबकि Besides का प्रयोग  के अतिरिक्त  के रूप में  होता है।  जैसे -:
1 She was sitting Beside Sarla.
2 He has a car Besides a motorcycle. (उस के पास मोटर साइकल  के अतिरिक्त  एक कार है।
Use of  Between/ Among -: Between का प्रयोग  दो के बीच में  जबकि Among का प्रयोग दो से अधिक  के    बीच में के रूप में किया जाता है।  जैसे :- 1 He distributed his property between his two sons.
 2- He distributed his property among the poor.
Note-: Between का प्रयोग दो से अधिक के रूप में तब किया जा सकता  है जब वे पास्पर आबद्ध (closely  associated)  हो।  Example -: A treaty was signed between three-party
Use of Make of / Make from -: दोनों का प्रयोग material (सामग्री ) का बोध कराने  के लिए  होता है।
Make of  का प्रयोग तब होता है  जब  वस्तु  (सामग्री ) की अबस्था  में कोई परिवर्तन  नहीं होता है
1- A notebook is made of paper.
2- A house made of bricks.

Make from -: का प्रयोग तब होता है जब सामग्री  की अबस्था  बदल  जाती  है
Example -: 1- Butter is made from milk
2- Paper is made from grass.

Use of In/With-:
Rule -: 1 जब Countable noun तब  Instrument के लिए with का प्रयोग  होता है
                   He writes with a pen. (Countable  noun)
Rule -: 2 Uncountable noun के साथ In का प्रयोग होता है.
                      He is writing in ink   (Uncountable noun)

With का प्रयोग  कई  अर्थो में  होता है।

(1)   साथ -साथ   He is playing with his sister.
(2)    कारण       He is trembling with fear.
(3)     संबंध       I have no relation with her.
(4)     तरीका     He fought with determination. (Manner)
(5)    सहमति   I agree with you.

Use of  Opposite/ In front of -: Opposite का प्रयोग बिपरीत एवं सामने दोनों अर्थो में होता है  In front of का प्रयोग केवल सामने के लिए होता है
Example -: Ram and Shyam are having meal.Ram is sitting at one side of table and Shyam at the other site. तो  हम कहेगे  :
1- Ram is sitting opposite Shyam.
हम ये नहीं कहेगे  कि Ram is sitting in front of Shyam (wrong)
Road के दोनों  तरफ के मकानों के लिए भी  Opposite का ही प्रयोग होगा।

In front of प्रयोग निम्न प्रकार किया जाता है :
(1) He parked the car in front of the hotel.
(2) He put the plates on the table in front of us.

Preposition + Gerund कुछ  verbs एवं    Adjectivesइस प्रकार  के होते है  जिन के साथ preposition के  बाद  हमेसा  Gerund  form  का प्रयोग  होता है।  इस तरह  की   Verbs निम्न लिखित है।

abstain from,desirous of,  pride in, afraid of  angry about/at , bad at , debar from, proud of ,succeed in ,good at ,clever at, crazy about ,desist from , repent of,  successful in, disqualified from , think of , bent on , dissuade (one) from , hopeful of , insist on ,  prevent from , fortunate in , meditate on ,refrain from , assist in , aim at ,  hinder (one) from, excel in ,  passion for , prohibit (one) from , negligent in , excuse for , despair of , percent in , tired of ,  confident of , percent in , worried about , fond of , famous for  , excited about , gland about , keen on , interested in , disappointed about /at , fed up with , sick of , sorry about /for,  happy about/at ,

NOTE: ऊपर दीगयी  सूची के अनुसार  जो  Preposition  प्रयुक्त हुए  है  उसे याद   करे  क्योकि यह बहुत  महत्वपूर्ण  है।  इन सभी के साथ  Gerund का  प्रयोग होता है।
Some use of prepositions following here :
1- They are afraid of losing the match.
2- Mohan is good at working in the garden
3 - This girl is crazy about playing tennis.
4 - Ramesh is keen on drawing
5 - She is used to smoking
Preposition Omitted
Here we will learn that the condition of the preposition is not used.
यहां हम सीखेंगे की  preposition का प्रयोग किन परिस्थित में नहीं किया जाता है।
Rule 1- सामान्यतया  Transitive verbs के साथ Preposition का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।  इस तरह की verbs है :
Reach, Resist, Resemble, Afford, Accompany, Attack Assist, Pick, Pervade, Obey, Precede, Order, Combat, Benefit, Inform, Violate, etc.
Example :
1 He ordered for a cup of tea. (Incorrect)
  He ordered a cup of tea.    (correct)
2 - India attacked on Pakistan (Incorrect)
   India attacked  Pakistan  (correct)
Rule 2
Words that express some time; such as Morning, Evening Day, Month, Week, Year
And so on.
कुछ समय ब्यक्त कर ने वाले शब्दों: Morning, Evening Day, Month, Week, Year. इत्यादि  से पूर्व
यदि किसी Objective जैसे  This, That Next, Every, Last etc. प्रयोग हो तो  तब समय ब्यक्त  करने
काले शब्दों से पूर्व कोई Preposition नहीं लगाना चाहिए।  
             1 - She is going to Jaipur next morning.
             2 - I met her last evening.

Rule 3 अन्यथा समय ब्यक्त करने वाले उक्त शब्दों के पूर्व  Preposition आता है।
                     1- She went in the morning
                     2- I met her in the evening.
Rule -4  Home : Home के साथ जब गति(motion)  व्यक्त करने वाली verbs  जैसे  : go,get इत्यादि का प्रयोग किया गया हो तो Home के   साथ  Prepositions  का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

Example: 1- It took them three hours to get home
               2- I went home by bus.
NOTE : यदि  Home के तुरंत पूर्व  किसी pharse?word का प्रयोग तो Priposition लगता है।

Example   :
                   1- She returned her husband's home.
                  2- I went to his home
Rule 5: Home के साथ at का  प्रयोग भी किया जाता है।

Example: 1-  You can do this work at home.
              2 -  We can stay at home.



Preposition Text series Second

We are started Test Series For competition Exam.
This is the second test. You can check your ability.

  1. His professional ability proves that he is cut .........for this job.

  2. Out

  3. You can not expect respect from him because he is lost .......sense of shame.

  4. in

  5. The history of hindu religion dates........ancient times.

  6. from

  7. You have not to get up because book is lying ..........hand.

  8. at

  9. Now government servant have the day...............every sunday.

  10. since

  11. After all hard work has come to tell...............your health.

  12. on

  13. The government acted judiciously to stave........the crisis.

  14. out

  15. On seeing a thief he at once reached ........... his pistol in his pocket.

  16. put

  17. Dishonesty is always detrimental..............progress in life.

  18. in

  19. He made insulting remarks that are derogatory............his reputation.

  20. with

After scoring you advise me on my email

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