A Short Note Panchayati raj in india
Panchayati Raj is a small governance by people for people. The Panchayati Raj is the system of self-govemance at the village level people. According to Mahatma Gandhi to empower the villages has been diveded into a real” through the three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj. The panchayati Raj is a three tier system of governance. At the root or the village level, we find the Gram Panchayats. Above the village is the block level, we call it Janpad Panchayat. At the end come in Zila Panchayat. The block level, we find the Panchayat Samiti or the Janpad Panchayat. It is dived in three part 1. Gram Panchayat —Janpad Panchayat—-District Panchayat
Gram Sabha Composition
All the big and small village in India comprise of Gram Sabha. Gram Sabha literally means, ‘a meeting of the village! All men and women in the village who are eighteen years and above can take part in the meeting have the right to vote. A Gram Sabha could cover either one village or more than one village. In a way, it is the general body of meeting at the viIlage level.
Function of Village Panchayat
Meetings of the Gram Sabha are held to ensure development of the participating and mutual cooperation in the decnsion-making process. It plays a critical role in electing the members of the panchayat and making the panchayat fulfill its role and responsibilities. All the plans that the panchayat wants to implement are well discussed and placed before the Gram Sabha for consideration and approval. For example, the annual budget and development schemes for the villages are discussed in the Gram Sabha. The different problems and difficulties of the people are also discussed in the Gram Sabha.
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How to rises a Gram Panchayat
Panchayat refers to a council of elected members who look after the social, economic and cultural needs of the villages and settle the disputes between people. A Gram Panchayat can be set up in a village with a population of more than six hundred. If the population Is less than six hundred then two or more villages are clubbed together and have common Gram Panchayat.
Members of the Gram Panchayat are elected directly by members of Gram Sabha from among themselves on the basis of secret voting. The president or head of Panchayat is known as Sarpanch.
How to elected a Sarpanch
The Sarpanch is elected by people of village on the basis of secret voting.He / She presides over the meetings of the Gram Panchayat and supervises Its work. The Sarpanch implements the development work. A deputy sarpanch is also elected who assisted the sarpanch in his / her work The term of the panchayat is five years.
Secretary The Gram Panchayat has a secretary who is also the secretary of the Gram Sabha. The panchayat secretary is a salaried officer appointed by the government. His main task is to record and register the work done by the panchayat and to the budget. He also advises the villagers in matters of health, farming, village development and education.
Functions of the Gram Panchayat
Some of the main functions of the Gram Panchayat are listed below Levying and collecting taxes, tolls and fees from their village. Ensuring the welfare of the people at the village level including health, education; communal harmony, social justice particularly gender and caste based discrimination, dispute resolution and welfare of children, especially the girl child Construction and repair of village wells and hand pumps, roads, drainage and school buildings and plantation of trees ‘Maintenance of records relating to births, deaths and marriages in the village. Implementing government schemes for generating employment In the village A Gram pancbayat is responsible for water supply in village:
Sources of income for Gram Panchayat
The Gram Panchayat needs money to discharge all these functions. Certain sources of income have been llotted to the Gram Panchayat for this purposeé’fe main source of income is the tax levied on houses and shops and other open spaces in the village. Other sources of income include professional tax, taxes on pilgrimages, fairs and
markets and animal trade. It also receives grants I from the state government and the Zila Parishad.
Reservation of seats
In the Gram Panchayat, some of the seats are reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled-tribes and women. Besides these, there is a provision to reserve some of the seats for the backward classes of citizens. One-third of the total number of seats is reserved for Women.